Date   

Re: Business Case for CoP Participation #CoP #value

Stan Garfield
 

Patrick's reply was excellent. Here are a few more suggestions for making the business case for communities.

Explain how active participation in communities will have a positive impact on the organization's key business objectives. For example:
  • If we save one project from repeating the same mistakes as previous projects, that could save $2 million. If we repeat this, the impact on profits is large.
  • If by responding quickly to an opportunity with a proven solution using acknowledged experts, we win one $10 million deal that we otherwise would have lost, that’s incremental revenue of $10 million. If we repeat this, the impact on revenue is significant.
  • If by ensuring that the best engineering product knowledge is reused, we avoid one product recall, we save the company hundreds of millions of dollars.
Ask compelling questions. For example:
  • Do we want our people to be able to readily find other people who can provide useful advice at the time of need? Community participation enables this.
  • Do we want anyone who has a question, seeks a resource, or requires help to be able to easily, quickly, and reliably get what they need? Posting in online communities makes this possible.
  • Do we want to stop reinventing the wheel? Sharing across organizational boundaries in communities can help us to avoid redundant effort.
For more, see this article about ROI and these articles about communities.


Re: Business Case for CoP Participation #CoP #value

Patrick Lambe
 

Hi Raquel

Participation in CoPs has no quantifiable business value in and of itself. Any business value will reside in the value of the problems that are solved, the risks avoided or the opportunities grasped. 

Sometimes these are added value (e.g. a CoP that provides a forum for solving complex problems) and sometimes these are just the cost of doing business (e.g. Airbus EADS uses CoPs to knit together its various national workforces so that the aircraft it manufactures will fly safely and economically - because of its distributed nature the consortium would simply not function without them; on the individual level, many professions have requirements for continuing professional education/ re-accreditation - KM does not have this, and I would argue that the nearest thing to it is participation in KM CoPs - this is the “cost of doing business” in the KM space). 

“Cost of doing business” means that it’s a basic qualification to operate in that space, and without it you have no credibility. In that context the question is not about financial benefits from the activity, but whether or not you can even function in that space. For compliance and corporate governance I would compare the cost of regular commercial training and certification programs to stay current vs the “cost” of participation. You will need one or the other (and perhaps both) to remain credible. Training and accreditation gives you structured content, but it is retrospective. CoPs and networks typically give you trends, emerging issues, and networks of contacts for rapid assistance in challenging situations. Which comes back to, what are the problems your role is intended to solve, and what is the value of solving them? Are they stable problems (in which case training and study is probably enough) or are they shifting over time (in which case CoPs and networks are necessary)?

So I would look at what the CoPs are meant to achieve/ contribute to, and what your role is intended to achieve.

Unfortunately it’s not as easy as turning everything into dollar values.

P

Patrick Lambe
Partner
Straits Knowledge

phone:  +65 98528511

web:  www.straitsknowledge.com
resources:  www.greenchameleon.com
knowledge mapping:  www.aithinsoftware.com


On 21 Aug 2021, at 1:17 AM, Raquel Balceiro <raqbalceiro@...> wrote:

Dear colleagues,

 

How are you? I am a regular reader of the messages exchanged here in the group and I understand the wealth of the recommendations you make.

 

Knowing my trajectory in Knowledge Management, my manager decided that I would stand out as responsible for participating in CoPs of companies around the topic in which I work today (Compliance and Corporate Governance).

I particularly understand the benefits of knowledge exchanges in CoPs, such as learning, networking, ideas and analogies that support innovation.

However, I need to build a Business Case, showing financial benefits that can come from this participation.

So, do you have any recent studies on Communities of Practice to refer to me? Any contribution you can offer me will be very helpful.

Thank you in advance.

Raquel Balceiro
Academy of Corporate Governance, Compliance and Integrity
Petrobras
Brazil



Business Case for CoP Participation #CoP #value

Raquel Balceiro
 

Dear colleagues,

 

How are you? I am a regular reader of the messages exchanged here in the group and I understand the wealth of the recommendations you make.

 

Knowing my trajectory in Knowledge Management, my manager decided that I would stand out as responsible for participating in CoPs of companies around the topic in which I work today (Compliance and Corporate Governance).

I particularly understand the benefits of knowledge exchanges in CoPs, such as learning, networking, ideas and analogies that support innovation.

However, I need to build a Business Case, showing financial benefits that can come from this participation.

So, do you have any recent studies on Communities of Practice to refer to me? Any contribution you can offer me will be very helpful.

Thank you in advance.

Raquel Balceiro
Academy of Corporate Governance, Compliance and Integrity
Petrobras
Brazil


Re: KM workshop #question

Nancy Dixon
 

Vandana,
When I introduce KM to a group I start with a KM exercise that demonstrates how much knowledge is in the room - and participants are engaged and intrigued.  Then I talk about the 10 big ideas of KM.

However, I fully agree with Tom Short. It depends on what you and the group you bring together want and need from KM. My exercise assumes the organization needs to find ways to share and create knowledge. If the goal is to capture and store knowledge, you need a different starting point.

Good luck on your new efforts😀

Nancy

On Aug 20, 2021, at 6:43 AM, Vandana Wadhawan via groups.io <vandanawadhawan@...> wrote:

Hi all, 

Has anyone organised and planned any KM workshops in past?  I’m thinking about doing it for the Business Partners and customer liaison managers aligned to our team.

Any thoughts, or any topics you had used would ge helpful. 
--
Vandana W


Re: KM workshop #question

 

Hi Vandana,

we have conducted many KM workshops for Novartis, Roche and other companies. The first question is however what type of KM do you have in mind and what contribution should KM do to your organization?

Is it more active and therefore more knowledge orientated or more on the passive side and therefore information orientated. Your selection of techniques, methods and tools will depend on this.

The 3 Sphere Model is a great tool to clarify this question with your audience and design your KM workshop accordingly. More information about this you find here: https://www.aht.ch

Regards,
Pavel
-- 
Dr. Pavel Kraus
President SKMF
SWISS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FORUM


 

Hi all, 

Has anyone organised and planned any KM workshops in past?  I’m thinking about doing it for the Business Partners and customer liaison managers aligned to our team.

Any thoughts, or any topics you had used would ge helpful. 
--
Vandana W


  


Re: KM workshop #question

Douglas Weidner
 

Hi Vandana,

At the KM Institute we do such briefings all the time, usually when we do a custom, in-house Certified K Manager (CKM) workshop vs. an open-enrollment workshop.

Typically we do an executive briefing for C-Level employees and a basic primer (KM101) for K Workers.

The executive briefing focuses on the strategic aspects of the KM Transformation, especially the organizational implications of the  Knowledge Age and the new top management responsibilities .

KM101 emphasizes the much-changed roles of all employees in the K Age. It encourages them to become much more engaged Personal K Managers.

Of curse the KM Team gets highly specialized training on how to successfully transform the organization. We now emphasize learn-by-doing with our KM PRACTICUM approach over mere lectures the historic, more traditional training.

Douglas Weidner
Exec Chairman, Chief CKM Instructor
KM Institute



On Fri, Aug 20, 2021 at 7:43 AM Vandana Wadhawan via groups.io <vandanawadhawan=yahoo.co.in@groups.io> wrote:
Hi all, 

Has anyone organised and planned any KM workshops in past?  I’m thinking about doing it for the Business Partners and customer liaison managers aligned to our team.

Any thoughts, or any topics you had used would ge helpful. 
--
Vandana W


Re: KM workshop #question

 

What’s the goal?

On Fri, Aug 20, 2021 at 12:43 PM Vandana Wadhawan via groups.io <vandanawadhawan=yahoo.co.in@groups.io> wrote:
Hi all, 

Has anyone organised and planned any KM workshops in past?  I’m thinking about doing it for the Business Partners and customer liaison managers aligned to our team.

Any thoughts, or any topics you had used would ge helpful. 
--
Vandana W

--
~Tom

Tom Short Consulting
 
+1 415.300.7457 

--
-Tom
--

Tom Short Consulting
TSC
+1 415 300 7457

All of my previous SIKM Posts


KM workshop #question

Vandana Wadhawan
 

Hi all, 

Has anyone organised and planned any KM workshops in past?  I’m thinking about doing it for the Business Partners and customer liaison managers aligned to our team.

Any thoughts, or any topics you had used would ge helpful. 
--
Vandana W


Re: August 2021 SIKM Call: Andrew Trickett - Communities of Practice: Challenges, Curiosity and Dragons #CoP #monthly-call

Kim Glover
 

I missed the call, but just checked out the slides. They are fabulous – fun, inspiring, thought-provoking. Thank you, Andrew.

 

Kim Glover

Director, Knowledge Management & Social Learning  |  People and Culture

P  +1 281 405 7069  |  M  +1 832 472 2983

kim.glover@...

 


Opportunity at Project Evident #jobs

Katrina Pugh
 

Project Evident is looking for a terrific Deputy Managing Director.  They are looking for someone with extensive consulting experience who can set up the processes and procedures (especially knowlege and collaboration procedures) for quality execution, and has deep experience growing and managing teams.  

Project Evident (https://www.projectevident.org/ ) helps nonprofits and mission-based organizations with evidence-development and quality execution on behalf of themselves and their stakeholders, grantors and clients. 

People can email Siobhan O’Riordan (saoconsult@...) with any questions or apply directly to careers@...


Re: Veeva Vault Search capabilities? #tools #search

TJ Hsu
 

Thank you Stan! This is very helpful, I really appreciate you taking the time to dig this up.

Also, if anyone has experience with Veeva Vault search, please let me know - would love to connect.


Re: Veeva Vault Search capabilities? #tools #search

Stan Garfield
 


Re: Finding questionnaire #survey

Stan Garfield
 

Shiva, please say more about the purpose of the questionnaire and how you plan to use it. This will help other members respond. Thanks


Re: August 2021 SIKM Call: Andrew Trickett - Communities of Practice: Challenges, Curiosity and Dragons #CoP #monthly-call

Stan Garfield
 

Today we held our 192nd monthly call. Thanks to Andrew for presenting, to those who asked questions, and to all those who attended. Please continue the discussion here by replying to this thread. Here are the details of the call.
Relevant articles
Group Chat

[8/17/2021 10:55:40 AM] Ginetta Gueli from Italy: Hello Stan and Andrew

[8/17/2021 11:00:40 AM] Shawn Cunningham: Hello, Shawn here from South Africa. It is my first time here.

[8/17/2021 11:01:23 AM] Stan Garfield: Slides https://www.slideshare.net/SIKM/communities-of-practice-challenges-curiosity-and-dragons

[8/17/2021 11:01:23 AM] Stan Garfield: Welcome Ginetta, Shawn, and everyone else joining us today!

[8/17/2021 11:29:39 AM] Jamie Luedtke: Unfortunately I have to leave for a meeting but look forward to catching the rest of this via the recording! Thank you!

[8/17/2021 11:33:11 AM] Stan Garfield: Harold Jarche

[8/17/2021 11:40:58 AM] Ginetta Gueli from Italy: Thanks Andrew for this great presentation, my questions are:

apologizes for the typos, I am writing fast:

    Are induction checklist 'courses' mandatory?

    Do employees' end of year evaluation depend also on how much they are active on a "Network Skills"? Or on how many of them they are they part of?

    How do you evaluate if a Network Skills is making the difference and bringing value to Arup or not? What are the KPIs used?

[8/17/2021 11:40:58 AM] Ginetta Gueli from Italy:   I did not understand, so sorry if you already said: do you have a team managing "Network Skills"?

    Why should top management stop CoPs from being born? I have the opposite experience...

[8/17/2021 11:43:00 AM] Cassandra Lovejoy: Many thanks for this excellent presentation. I'm afraid I have to leave for a meeting. Thanks again.

[8/17/2021 11:43:15 AM] Stan Garfield: Key factors in Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Communities of Practice: A Systematic Review by Roberto Hernández-Soto, Mónica Gutiérrez-Ortega, and Rubia Avi Bartolomé

 

[8/17/2021 11:44:14 AM] Shawn Cunningham: Hi Andrew, how do you draw in people from outside the organisations into the COPs?

[8/17/2021 11:51:19 AM] Shawn Cunningham: Thank you for the response, really appreciate it.  Lovely to hear your passion!

[8/17/2021 11:52:33 AM] Luis Suarez: I have got a question for Andrew: seeing the value you've shown us about social networks and CoPs why do you think traditional management is so reluctant to actively participate & engage in the conversations. What can we do to help them?

[8/17/2021 11:55:16 AM] Ninez Piezas-Jerbi: What do you do when the CoP only gets mobilized when there is a facilitator and engagement is quite low when there's no facilitator?

[8/17/2021 11:55:50 AM] Katelyn: Thank you for the presentation, my internet is not great and I missed part of what you said about size of CoPs. We continually struggle with organizers wanting to invite everyone to be open and not exclusive. Any tips on the best way to encourage non-exclusivity but also foster robust CoPs?

[8/17/2021 11:56:12 AM] Shawn Cunningham: Introducing T-Shaped Managers: Knowledge Management’s Next Generation by Morten T. Hansen and Bolko von Oetinger

[8/17/2021 11:57:08 AM] Ninez Piezas-Jerbi: thanks, Andrew!

[8/17/2021 11:58:40 AM] Katelyn: it did - thank you!

[8/17/2021 11:58:40 AM] Katelyn: That makes sense, thank you Stan

[8/17/2021 11:59:29 AM] Marc Solomon: Thanks for another once-in-a-presenter presentation from KM Professor Trickett. 😊

[8/17/2021 12:00:04 PM] Tim Powell: Thank you, Andrew and Stan, for this most enriching hour!

[8/17/2021 12:00:11 PM] Ginetta Gueli from Italy: Thanks Andrew and Stan! Really insightful! Have a good rest of the day!

 

[8/17/2021 12:00:11 PM] Luis Suarez: Thanks much, Andrew, for the wonderful presentation! That was brilliant & very inspiring of what's possible!

[8/17/2021 12:00:24 PM] Ginetta Gueli from Italy:  👏

[8/17/2021 12:00:53 PM] Robert Taylor: Thanks Stan, Andrew and all.

[8/17/2021 12:01:13 PM] Luis Suarez: See you all! Bye!


Re: What is the current/future role of AI in the KM processes? #methods #AI #art-of-KM #collaboration #knowledge-capture

Dennis Thomas
 

Hello Ginetta,

Points well made.  I tend to be a bit provocative from time to time.  The “die” comment was a bit over the top and you are right to point it out.  Regarding IT/OT architects and programmers, our company has lost money on IT programmers who just could not understand the idea of rational processes versus logical processes. It took others time to peel back the onion before they understood.   Those where unexpected roadblocks that we could not afford at the time.  Otherwise, I believe a new era of technology is in process, and a big part of that is occurring in the manufacturing industry.  Some states have programs in place to help educate manufactures about the IT / OT convergence and how to understand and navigate the transition.  

I believe this is happening across all industries. Small businesses focus is on services and products, then they focus on business process, then on systems, then on the integration of systems, and so forth.  There is a clear maturation process that occurs as revenues and incomes increase.  The question is, from our point of view, what kinds of OT can best accommodate these transitions?  We believe that no code / low code is the answer on the low end, and more sophisticated integrations as the systems grow in complexity.  For us, this means starting with systems that are Controlled Vocabulary-driven rather than taxonomy-driven as with AI and NLP (Natural Language Processing) systems.  This brings us to the point of the Linguistic-Semantic Gap. 

The linguistic-semantic gap is the friction point between IT and OT.  IT utilizes taxonomies for the machine side, then tries to map those stripped down bits and bytes to the human user side.  Something gets lost in the translation.  What gets lost is the context, meaning, and purpose of the concepts people know and understand.   So the question then becomes, how can a machine faithfully represent concepts and ideas?  What are those?  IT excels with modeling the physical world.  There are objects, attributes (physical and semiotic) and processes - be they logistics of manufacturing, assembly, packaging and shipping.   When it comes to semiotics (refers to, or references something else), the challenge becomes more complex, and finally, when we get into metaphysics we are in crazy space.  But, we need to get there. 

My vision of KM Future technology are screens that are concept-driven.  They are knowledge driven and interact with people as if their were an associate or subject matter expert on any subject.  They educate and convey simple to complex subjects in a language that people know and understand.  They excite, surprise, encourage, stimulate, entice, expose new vistas of discovery.  I like the Nancy Dixon's series on Organizational Dialogue, Guy Wallaces’s persistent messages about Instructional Systems Design and task/process modeling that reflects organizational goals and objective, Arthur Shelley Organizational Zoo, and Milton/Lambe ISO work, Patty Shanks work with Multiple Choice Questions, and many others.  Their work, as with many others, is hero work.  It is highly rational.  It cuts new ground, it proves out human intelligence,  IT is trying to kill it. 

Finally, attached are two graphics that relate to this discussion.  Not sure they will go through.  

Dennis L. Thomas
IQStrategix
(810) 662-5199

Leveraging Organizational Knowledge 

On August 17, 2021 at 9:23:58 AM, Ginetta Gueli via groups.io (ginetta.gueli@...) wrote:

Hello Thomas,
I read with interest your point of view, mhmm fascinating. I tend to agree with most of what you wrote. In particularly when you say "Computers do not learn. They only recognize patterns.": I cannot agree more!

Based on my experience it is true that IT people recommend more IT to create the perfect KM system, but I have to admit that I had the pleasure to meet CIO and IT teams who were in the middle; not many I must say, but there are, and they are precious, because they are great KM partners.

This being said, I am not sure that all the youngers will think of OT as a solution and the old school KM people will soon die off. With more than 15 years of experience I can consider myself to be part of the 'old school', but I have to say that it does not depend on the generation you belong to: I met old school KMers that were more OT than IT and young people who were more IT than OT, and vice versa of course.

Again, thanks for your answer. I will definitively 'use' them as food for thought during our interviews. Let's see the results.

Have a great August and keep in touch.
All the best,
Ginetta

--
Ginetta Gueli
Information & Knowledge Manager | Project Manager


Re: What is the current/future role of AI in the KM processes? #methods #AI #art-of-KM #collaboration #knowledge-capture

Ginetta Gueli
 

Hello Thomas,
I read with interest your point of view, mhmm fascinating. I tend to agree with most of what you wrote. In particularly when you say "Computers do not learn. They only recognize patterns.": I cannot agree more!

Based on my experience it is true that IT people recommend more IT to create the perfect KM system, but I have to admit that I had the pleasure to meet CIO and IT teams who were in the middle; not many I must say, but there are, and they are precious, because they are great KM partners.

This being said, I am not sure that all the youngers will think of OT as a solution and the old school KM people will soon die off. With more than 15 years of experience I can consider myself to be part of the 'old school', but I have to say that it does not depend on the generation you belong to: I met old school KMers that were more OT than IT and young people who were more IT than OT, and vice versa of course.

Again, thanks for your answer. I will definitively 'use' them as food for thought during our interviews. Let's see the results.

Have a great August and keep in touch.
All the best,
Ginetta

--
Ginetta Gueli
Information & Knowledge Manager | Project Manager


Re: What is the current/future role of AI in the KM processes? #methods #AI #art-of-KM #collaboration #knowledge-capture

Dennis Thomas
 

Hello Gueli,

From my perspective, the over riding issue of I4.0, 4th Industrial Revolution, Industry 4.0 is the convergence of IT (Information Technology) and OT (Operational Technologies. 

IT = AI, Internet of Things, Telecommunications (G5)
OT = Applications related to business strategies and human-centric issues

IT = logic based programming.  Requires self-consistency.  First order logic is A=B true/false, 2nd order logic is If this/than that, higher order logics gets into bayesian probabilities

As such, IT is designed to deliver consumption-based information. In effect, it treats people as if they were just another component of the technology.  It’s subtly dehumanizing. But,people trump IT, if they don’t like it, they won’t use it.  

OT is about Knowledge.  Knowledge has context, meaning, snd purpose.  It is both cognitive and explicit.  It has dependencies, contingencies, cross-silo, cross-functional, cross-reference, and causal dimensions.  Comprehension and understanding are knowledge oriented.  Critical thinking and problem solving are dependent upon it.  

IT does not have a clue of the meaning of words or their implications.  Computers do not learn.  They only recognize patterns.  Did you know that ChatBots were invented in 1964-1966?  Here we are more than 60 years later and they still do not understand language context or meaning.  Programming strips that away.  Conceptual graphs try to give language meaning, but word relationships with labels such as “city of,” “part of,” etc. is descriptive, not semantic.  

OT is about intricate cognitive systems, collaborative efforts, self-pased learning, business processes that achieve goals and objectives.  Most importantly, they have a rational component to them.  It is rationality that pierces our conceptual barriers to invent new paradigms of thought and possibilities.  Logic-based systems follow.  AI cannot and does not create.  That’s pure hype.

From my point if view, old school KM people will soon die off.  It is the younger, hipper, more tech savvy KM practitioners who will naturally think of OT as a solution.  Old school KM people will readily accept whatever IT people recommend.  Guess what IT people recommend.  More IT.  

The convergence of IT and OT is the happy middle ground.  Understand the playing field, Know that there are other options out there other than multi-million dollar Fortune 1000 data technologies.  Small and medium size companies my very well lead the KM charge out of its boxed canyon.  Know that OT can integrate RELEVANT data to make rational reasoning systems eclipse the fixed data interfaces populated with dead data that are boring users around the world.  We want dynamic, exciting, user-friendly knowledge systems.  

Dennis


-- 
DL Thomas

On July 9, 2021 at 6:45:47 AM, Ginetta Gueli via groups.io (ginetta.gueli@...) wrote:

Dear SIKM leaders,
my name is Ginetta Gueli and I am information and Knowledge Manager.  I am currently co-working on a university research project in collaboration with prof. Luna Leoni (University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy).
As you may know, Industry 5.0 calls for the adoption of a human-centric approach for digital technologies (including artificial intelligence) that requires an upskilling and deskilling of the workers, particularly in terms of digital skills. All of this have an impact on the knowledge management of organizations and so on firms performance. However, it is still not clear if and how these new digital technologies may practically help knowledge managers in their job within organizations, facilitating and improving knowledge mining, management and dissemination. This is particularly true when referring to the role that Artificial intelligence (AI) may play in terms of Knowledge management (KM) practices within organizations. So our key starting question is: what is the current role of AI in the KM processes? And if none, what role AI will play in the future of KM? 
The topic is hot, and we aim to build a practical and concrete report (i.e. a paper) that can be useful to understand the status quo and the way forward.
In this respect we are looking for Knowledge Manager/KM professionals who are concretely implementing AI solutions in their organizations (no restrictions of size, country, type of business, etc.) and would like to get in contact with them to set up an interview.
If you are interested to know more on content, timing, privacy of the interview, etc., or you know anyone that could be, please drop me an email or answer to this thread by 31st July 2021. 
We are very much looking forward to hearing from you. 
Thank you for the positive consideration and kind regards,
Ginetta
NB: to know more us, please visit our IN profiles :-)
---
Ginetta Gueli
Information & Knowledge Manager | Project Manager


Re: What is the current/future role of AI in the KM processes? #methods #AI #art-of-KM #collaboration #knowledge-capture

 

This may well be the killer use case for AI+KM: expertise location. Check it out: https://www.starmind.ai/oracle-partner-event
Thanks, Jonathan Gordon-Till, for the reference in this thread https://sikm.groups.io/g/main/message/9341

-- 
-Tom
--

Tom Short Consulting
TSC
+1 415 300 7457

All of my previous SIKM Posts


Veeva Vault Search capabilities? #tools #search

TJ Hsu
 

Hi everyone,
Is anyone familiar with or understand Veeva Vault's search capabilities? It's one of the content management tools in use at my company, and I'm trying to understand generally how it works and if it's any good.

Thank you!
TJ


August 2021 SIKM Call: Andrew Trickett - Communities of Practice: Challenges, Curiosity and Dragons #CoP #monthly-call

Stan Garfield
 

This is a reminder of tomorrow's monthly call from 11 am to 12 noon EDT. Note that the US is now on Daylight Savings Time.

  • August 17, 2021 SIKM Call: Andrew Trickett - Communities of Practice: Challenges, Curiosity and Dragons
  • Slides
  • For online chat, use the group chat in FreeConferenceCall.com.

SIKM Leaders Community Monthly Call

  • Where: (712) 770-4035 (US and Canada) Passcode 178302
  • International Dial-in Numbers
  • You can join online using your computer’s speakers and microphone at http://join.freeconferencecall.com/stangarfield
    - Online Meeting ID: stangarfield
  • If you join online, be sure to click on the phone icon and then choose your audio preference.
  • Please don't turn on video - this increases the size of the recording ten times.
  • If you have problems connecting, call customer service at 844-844-1322.
  • Occurs the third Tuesday of every month from 11:00 AM to 12:00 PM Eastern Time (USA)
  • Community Site 
  • Slides - There is no live screen sharing - you follow along by advancing the slides yourself.
  • Previous Calls
  • Future Calls
  • Calendar

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